How does VizShock work?


VizShock is an LED-based deterrent device designed to induce aversion responses such as blinking, blocking and other actions to remove oneself from the light source.  The red and blue lights pulse at two overlapping frequencies, 12-15 Hz and 50-60 Hz, causing over-stimulation in the sensory processing system.  The human brain has a limited capacity by which it can received and process visual information.  Overloading the sensory processing system causes disorientation and induces automatic aversion responses.  The effect of the discomfort fades a few minutes after removal from the strobe light source.  Staring into high-intensity light bleaches photoreceptors in the retina, causing black spots in the field of vision.  VizShocks are safely categorized either Risk Group 1 or 2 under EN62471.


What is EN62471?


EN62471 is the European New Standard for all lights and lighting systems including LED.  Classification of products are based on the following:


•. UV damage to skin and eyes

•. Near UV damage to eyes (315nm-400nm)

•. Blu-ray damage to the retina

•. Blu-ray damage to the retina (small light source)

•. Thermal hazard to the retina

•. Thermal hazard to the retina (for weak visual stimuli [780m-1400nm])

•. Infrared radiation hazards to the eyes (780nm-3000nm)

•. Thermal Hazards to the skin (380nm-3000nm)


Based on testing, products are classified under one of the following categories:


    1.  Exempt - No photo biological hazard 

    2.  Risk Group 1 - No photo biolgical hazard under normal behavioral limitations

    3.  Risk Group 2 - Does not pose a hazard due to aversion response to bright or thermal discomfort

    4.  Risk Group 3 - Hazardous even for momentary exposure


What is photosensitive epilepsy?


Photosensitive epilepsy is a type of epilepsy where almost all seizures are triggered by flashing or flickering lights.  Around three in every 100 people with epilepsy have photosensitive epilepsy.  It usually begins before the age of 20, most commonly between the ages of seven and 19.  Photosensitive epilepsy affects more girls than boys.  Most people with photosensitive epilepsy are sensitive to 16-25 Hz.  Some people may be sensitive to rates as low as 3 Hz and as high as 60 Hz.


Source:  September 12, 2015.


Can the VizShock trigger photosensitive epilepsy?


VizShock’s overlapping pulse frequencies are 12-15 Hz and 50-60 Hz, potentially placing it in the triggering range for photosensitive epilepsy.  It is important to remember that VizShock is intended to trigger aversion responses.  Behaviors that remove a person from the stimulus will reduce the risk of over-stimulation.  Please consult medical provisionals on how to manage a possible epileptic situation.  Please refer to the product manual before use.


What is TIR Optic?


A TIR Optic or TIR lens relies on Total Internal Reflection of light within a medium to control the direction of light rather than reflecting off a reflector cone.  This is the phenomenon that provides brightness in diamonds and enables fiber optic cables.  With TIR Optic, the LED is embedded within the optic enhancing the ability to mold the beam into the desired shape..  For a reflector, it only provides the opportunity to redirect light that is reflected off it.


What is the difference between Lumens and Candela?


Lumens (lm) and candela (cd) are both measures flight output.  They measure the luminous flux and candlepower of a light source respectively similar to how yard/meter is a measure of distance.


While some manufactures claim that lumens is the only real measure to compare to light output, candela provides important information on the characteristics of light output, too.  Lumens is a measure of the total light output while candela is a measure of light intensity.  Comparing room lighting to a laser, room lighting will have good lumens because but you will be able to look at the light source directly (though not advised).  For a laser, it will have good candela but will not light up a room.  However, you will not be able to look at the laser beam straight on (definitely not advised).  Both measurements provide important characteristics of a light source and, depending on its intended usage, either lumens or candela can be more relevant.  If a light sources is meant to light up a broad area, lumens would be the best means of comparison.  However, if the light source needs to be concentrated and focused on a target and not stray and give away the location of its source, candela would be the ideal means of comparison.


What is the type of batteries that are used in the Personal X-20, Professional X-13 and X114?


The Samsung ICR8650-26F 2600 mAh Li-Ion rechargeable battery is used.  In the X-114, four Panasonic NCR18650PF 2900 mAh Li-Ion rechargeable batteries are encased in the device.


In terms of Li-Ion batteries, can I carry VizShock onboard a commercial aircraft?


As a reference and as of January 12, 2016, U.S. FAA regulations allow for in-equipment Li-Ion batteries not excessive of 100 watt hours per battery.  The Samsung ICR8650-26F and NCR18650PF are rated less than 10 watt hours each.  Restrictions may vary depending on carrier and intended destination.  Please reference your carrier for details.


Source:  January 12, 2016.